No Relief for Kazakstan's Media. The president's
decision to reject a tough new media law was a cosmetic gesture
designed to conceal the dismal state of press freedom
By Sergey Duvanov in Almaty
Kazak president Nursultan Nazarbaev's recent decision to block a
controversial media law will do nothing for freedom of speech, and
is merely an attempt to score political points at home and abroad.
In a country like Kazakstan, it does not ultimately matter what
bills are adopted or rejected, as there is no rule of law anyway.
The authorities have the capacity to punish the media without
resorting to legal mechanisms. All it takes is the will to silence
one's opponents, an obedient set of bureaucrats, and an obliging
judicial system that is dependent on the president.
So rejecting this draconian law won't change anything. As long as
the current political system is in place, powerful authorities will
continue to crack down on critical media and persecute independent
journalists. President Nazarbaev announced his decision at the
Eurasia Media Forum, an international conference organised on April
22-24 by his daughter Dariga Nazarbaeva - herself an important
player in the media business. The president explained that he had
rejected the law after taking legal advice, saying, "I received a
ruling from the Constitutional Council that certain provisions of
the draft law are not in accordance with the constitution."
It was not difficult for Nazarbaev to knock the law back, as a
gesture to show his support for the media, as I believe that certain
provisions of the draft law were deliberately made excessively harsh
to give the president some room for manoeuvre.
In reality, his decision was no more than sleight of hand, designed
to earn the president the respect of journalists and improve his
country's worsening image both at home and abroad.
It was bare-faced deception. The media is already subject to
draconian restrictions and regulations even without this new law,
yet the authorities present themselves as democrats and benefactors.
It is certainly a positive thing that the information ministry
failed in its attempt to push the law through.
But the truth is that Kazakstan's media is currently in a worse
state than ever.
The authorities embarked on a path of steadily curbing media rights
in the mid-Nineties, and they are not going to turn back now. The
law that was rejected did not mark a radical shift; instead it was
just part of the third wave of a long-running campaign to tighten
control over press freedom.
I am saying this so that no one has any illusions that everything
was OK up till now, or that things began going terribly wrong only
when the draft law was produced.
In fact, restrictions on media have been growing steadily over the
last eight years.
First, all TV stations and print media perceived not to be loyal to
the authorities have been forced out. In 1997, independent media
outlets that had emerged in the first years of independence ceased
to exist as such. They included TV and radio stations such as "M",
which I set up; Totem, established by Rozlana Taukina, Serik
Medetbekov's radio RIK, and the Karavan newspaper run by Boris
These people proved to be naпve in believing that if they steered
clear of politics, they could establish a modus vivendi with those
in power and thus remain in business. Some were forced to sell out,
and others forced to give away their media outlets.
The lesson to be drawn from this was that for the authorities, it is
not enough for media to be loyal, they need to control and dominate
The administration did not stop there. After the biggest independent
players had been taken over, the remaining non-government print
outlets were subjected to restrictions.
A culture where some topics are taboo was imposed, and editors given
clear hints that certain personalities cannot be criticised. The
rules are unwritten, but self-censorship is widespread since
everyone knows what can happen if they are broken.
The few remaining critical voices, such as media aligned with
opposition groups, have been targeted through the creation of
obstacles to publication and distribution, under various pretexts.
The culmination was the legislation drafted last year that would
have given sweeping powers to the information ministry and making
journalists hostage to virtually every word they say and every quote
I understand why the authorities are doing this. Total corruption,
mismanagement of public funds, pandering organised crime, widespread
human rights violations are now inextricable characteristics of the
way they operate. The last thing they need is independent,
uncontrolled media - in their eyes that's highly dangerous.
Rejection of this law will do nothing for those journalists who work
in what I would call "the zone of heightened risk". By that I mean
those opposition-minded journalists who have no platform for
expressing their views. Even the internet is denied them, as some
websites are blocked by service providers on orders from the secret
The opposition newspapers Dat and SolDat, and websites such as
Eurasia, Kub and Politon are blocked from publishing. Well-known
individual voices such as Nurbulat Masanov, Pyotr Svoik, Amirjan
Kosanov, Andrei Sviridov and Ermurat Bapi are prevented from running
media outlets and cannot be heard.
The information ministry uses various pretexts to prevent them
operating legally. One of these I would describe as the
"anticipation game". As soon as the ministry receives an application
for registration from such "unwanted" media, they concoct backdated
paperwork to show that some other media organisation has already
been registered and has a prior claim to the chosen name. They can
then issue a formal ruling explaining why a licence cannot be
issued. This method has been used against the SolDat newspaper,
which has been refused registration six times.
Some opposition papers continue to operate but they do not
constitute a forum for completely free expression. Those that still
exist, like the Ak Jol party's Epokha, follow the self-censorship
rules. They will for example accept critical articles - but not if
the target is the president and his family.
Another problem is that these papers are partisan by their very
nature. Soz and Assandi Times, both linked to the Democratic Choice
of Kazakhstan, do carry critical reporting but are reluctant to
publish views that go against their particular political slant.
What now? It is not entirely clear what will happen to the text of
the law before it is once again submitted for parliamentary and
presidential approval. The best we can hope for is some tinkering
with a few of its provisions, and that won't be enough to address
the serious concerns facing journalists. The substantial changes
that the draft made to the old legislation will remain intact.
What is certain is that our working lives as journalists will be
remain as tough as they ever were.
Sergei Duvanov is an independent journalist based in Almaty. He was
released from prison in January 2004; during his imprisonment there
was an international campaign for his freedom.
May 13, 2004. Institute for War & Peace Reporting (IWPR), Reporting
Central Asia No. 282 as of May 8, 2004